Empirical Indicators of Democracy and Authoritarianism

Comparative Politics
Authoritarian Regimes

<Wilson, Matthew C. and Sanghoon Park. 2022. “Empirical Indicators of Democracy and Authoritarianism.” in Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science. Sandy Maisel. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, doi: 10.1093/OBO/9780199756223-0348


Political Science, University of South Carolina

Political Science, University of South Carolina


February 2022



Developing measures for empirical description and analysis entails several crucial, interrelated tasks. The first task is to establish, in concrete terms, the idea or concept to be measured. The second is to consider the most accurate way to measure the concept. After collecting data and creating the measure, another important task is to evaluate the consistency and reliability of the measure. In political science, the study of democracies—regimes that derive authority from citizens—and how they differ from non-democracies constitutes a major area of research. This bibliography covers works that have contributed to the development of empirical indicators of democracy and authoritarianism through their focus on the topics of conceptualization, validity, measurement, and reliability.

BibTeX citation

    Address = {New York},
    Author = {Matthew C. Wilson and Sanghoon Park},
    Booktitle = {Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science},
    Editor = {Sandy Maisel},
    Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
    Title = {Empirical Indicators of Democracy and Authoritarianism,
    Year = {2022}}